Klebsiella pneumoniae (also known as Friedlander's bacillus) is a small (0,5-0,8 x 1-2 mm) Gram-negative coccobacilli that causes necrotizing lobar pneumonia. Does not form spores, is motionless. Capable of forming a capsule. Arranged singly, in pairs and clusters. Easily stained with aniline dyes.
Klebsiella pneumoniae belongs to the normal intestinal flora of man. Normally, the bacterium is harmless in people with weakened immune systems or in weakening by other infections it may occur as pathogens.
The most common diseases are infections in this case, the urinary tract and the respiratory tract. See www.ndrugs.com for medications. The bacterium is responsible for nosocomial pneumonia in immunoincompetent known inpatients.
The bacteria also produces 10% of all hospital-acquired infections, including pneumonia and urinary tract infections, biliary tract and surgical wounds.
Carriers are at particular risk among hospital staff, especially when resistant strains of K. pneumoniae colonize the mouth, throats and intestines.
The predisposing factors are catheters and endotracheal tubes, old age, alcoholism, diabetes, immunosuppression, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and other debilitating diseases.
The combined mortality rate of primary and secondary Klebsiella pneumoniae is 50% due to necrotizing pneumonia is in itself dangerous, because those affected tend to be chronically ill or debilitated, otherwise.
Clinically, pneumonia is a sudden onset, characterized by fever, pleuritic pain, cough and expectoration thick mucus when the infection is severe the progress of these symptoms of respiratory distress, cyanosis and death within 2 to 3 days.
Patients with Klebsiella pneumoniae tend up a property to cough up sputum that is said to "Red resemble currant jelly". Klebsiella rank second only to E. coli for urinary tract infections in the elderly. It is also opportunistic pathogens in patients with chronic lung disease, enteric pathogenicity, nasal and Mucosaatrophie rhinoscleroma. residues are the most important source of patient infection, followed by contact with contaminated instruments.
Members of Klebsiella class usually express two types of antigens on their cell surface. The first O antigen is a lipopolysaccharide, which consists of nine varieties. The second K antigen, a capsular polysaccharide with more than 80 varieties. Both contribute to the pathogenicity and form the basis for subtyping.
Pneumonia develops when the bacilli invade and multiply within the alveolar spaces.
Klebsiella pneumoniae are increasingly common due to beta-lactamases resistant to penicillin and ampicillin. Furthermore, the bacteria belong to the ESBL-producing strains (ESBL = extended-spectrum beta-lactamase) and are therefore increasingly common multi-resistant to many broad-acting antibiotics such as cephalosporins or ceftazidime.
The lung parenchyma is consolidated, and mucous exudates filling the alveoli is dominated by macrophages, fibrin and edema fluid.
Neutrophils are inhibited by a neutral polysaccharide capsule of K. pneumoniae, and are not an important part of early exudates.
Many gram-negative encapsulated appear free in the exudate and alveolar macrophages.
As the exudate accumulates in the alveolar wall are compressed and then necrotic. Numerous small abscesses may coalesce and give rise to cavitation.
The research being conducted at the King's College, London has a tendency molecular mimicry between HLA-B27 and two molecules in the Klebsiellamikroben implied as the cause of ankylosing spondylitis. Many of these infections can be achieved when a person is in hospital for some other reason. The most common infection caused by Klebsiella bacteria outside the hospital is pneumonia.
On the photo Klebsiella pneumoniae strain on MacConkey agar No. 3 after 24 hours and incubation at 37 ° C. Notice the pink color of colonies due to lactose fermentation and mucosal appearance.
Pneumonia or other infections K. pneumoniae, may be complicated by a fulminant, often fatal, septicemia, disseminated lesions but not in other tissues.